Protista: "the very first"
Eukaryotic - have a nucleus

-Body Plan -mostly unicellular, some multicellular (algae)

-Divergent event -
-80 different groups have long, independent evolutionay histories that go back to more than 2 billion years ago
-Some show that they are derived from complex bacterial ancestors
-Many of the groups are not closely related to one another at all
-Start and foundation of kingdoms fungi, plantae, and animalia

-Metabolism- autotrophic and heterotrophic
-Heterotrophic – flagellates (animal-like, ingest food, mobile)
-Autotrophic – algae (green, red, brown, golden)

-Digestion- intracellular
-No consistent digestive tract
-Some protists like paramecium use cilia to move particles from its mouth pore and into its gullet
            -Food pinches off into vacuoles that move through the cytoplasm
            -Waste comes out through the anal pore
-Amoeba digest through endocytosis and produce waste through exocytosis
-Photosynthesis in algae

-Circulation- no heart

-Respiration- no lungs, but oxygen and materials are transported through protists through diffusion

-Nervous- no brain

-Reproduction – asexual, sometimes sexual
-Binary fission
-Conjugation, where the only diploid cell is the zygote
            -undergoes meiosis
-All other cells are formed by mitosis

-Plasmodium (causes malaria)

-Macrocystis (giant kelp)
            -one of most complex protists

Phylum: Ciliaphora
-Have tiny hair-like structures called cilia that beat back and forth
-Enables the protist to move through aquatic environment & capture food
-Ten pairs of microtubules
            -9+2 config, nine pairs form circle, tenth pair in circle
Example- Paramecium

Phylum: Euglenophyta
-Live in water
-Have two flagella for movement
-Chloroplasts for photosynthesis
            -Heterotrophs if kept in dark
-Eyespot for sensing light and dark
-Pellicle - like a cell wall, helps maintain shape
Example - Euglena

Phylum: Rhodophyta
-Red algae
-Presence of the pigment phycoerythrin, reflects red light and absorbs blue
-Different concentrations of the pigment
-Important in the formation of tropical reefs

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