Animalia (Metazoa): otherwise known as animals...
-Animalia cells do not contain cell walls that characterize plant cells
-Nine to 10 million species of animals
-THE most complex organisms on Earth

Body plan-
-ALL are multicellular

Divergent event-
-Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
            -natural selection (survival of the fittest)
-Developed from the first organisms on Eath (bacteria)
-Grew more and more complex
-Related to fungi more than any other kingdom
-Only the ones who had the traits for their environment survived and moved on to reproduce

-ALL are heterotrophs (obtain energy from or by consuming other organisms)
-ALL require oxygen for metabolism

-Intracellular – most have a digestive system
            -consists of: mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, small/large intestine, pancreas, colon, rectum

-Closed AND open
            -Closed – blood closed at all times within vessels of different size and wall thickness, blood pumped by heart through vessels, does not fill body cavities
            -Open – pumped by heart into body cavities where tissues are surrounded by blood
-pumps, three- and four-chamber hearts

-Gills – extracts dissolved oxygen from water
            -fish, other aquatic animals
-Book lungs – look like books, maximize surface area with air/gas exchange
-Lungs – mouth, nose, oropharynx, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
            -tetrapods, few fish, few snails
            -two lungs on either side of heart in complex mammals (humans)

            -frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal lobes
-Nerve net
            -simple nervous system found in cnidaria and echinodermata phyla
            -found in insects such as the cockroach

-Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit)

-Chinchilla lanigera (Chinchilla)

Phylum: Nematoda
-80,000 known parasitic worms
-Bilaterally symmetrical
-Body cavity is pseudocoel (its body flied is under high pressure)
-No circulatory system
-Feed on everything
-Don't usually live in dry places
Example- Roundworm

Phylum: Mollusca
-110,000 known species
-Most diverse in the world
-Mantle with cavity used for breathing and excretion
-Has a pair of kidneys
-Most have a shell of some sort
-Pearls from oysters were among the earliest forms of money
Example- Snail

Phylum: Annelida
-15,000 individual segmented worms
-Body possesses three separate sections: a prosomium, a truck, and a pygidium
-Has a true closed circulatory system
-No true respiratory organs
Example- Common earthworm

Phylum: Chordata, Subphylum: Vertebrata
-50,000 species of animals
-Structure is composed of numerous tissues and organs
-Have vertebrae - hollow structures which combine to make the spinal column
            -made of cartilage or bone and cartilage
            -surrounds and protects the central nerve cord

Class: Myxini
-Live in deep water
-Feed on carrion (dead, rotting flesh) as well as polychaete worms
-Use tentacles around their mouths to locate prey
-Single nostril opens into pharynx
-Example- Hagfish

Class: Cephalspidomorphi
-Hatch/breed in fresh water, mature in marine
-Parasitic as adults - have a suction-like mouth that grasps onto other fish and puts a hole in their skin
-Have buccal glands that secret an anticoagulant to ensure free-flowing food source
-Larvae are called ammocoetes
-Example- Lamprey

Class: Chondrichthyes
-Paired nostrils
-Skeleton is completely cartilage - no endoskeletal bone
-No swim bladder
-Example- Stingray

Class: Osteichthyes
-Endoskeleton made up of bone
-Jaws and paired appendages
-Arose in freshwater, moved into saltwater
-Example- Ocean Sunfish

Class: Amphibia
-Ectothermic - regulates body temperature by moving to different climates within its environment (cold-blooded)
-Eggs must be laid in water or in a very moist environment
           -young develop with gills and live in the water as tadpoles
-Example- Poison Dart Frog

Class: Reptilia
-Some of the first land-only vertebrates
-Ectothermic, heliotherms - can regulate body temperature using solar radiation
-Example- American Crocodile

Class: Aves
-Four-chambered heart
-Bill instead of teeth
-Endothermic - able to maintain a constant body temperate, regardless of its surroundings
-Example- Bald Eagle

Class: Mammalia
-Has hair/fur
-Mammary glands to give milk to young
-Dental bones
-Example- Dogs (Yorkshire Terrier)

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